Here are some more of my research notes that were collated during my studies to qualify as a sports massage therapist, hope you find them interesting


Muscular system:

Muscles are attached to the bone by tendons. Bones, tendons, and ligaments do not possess the ability (as muscles do) to make your body move. Muscles are very unique in this respect.


Structure and function of tendons

Tendons are the fibrous tissue, that connect muscles to bones. The massage therapist plays a very important part in the maintenance of muscle tendons it is very important to educate the client how important it is to keep tendons supple especially into middle age as degenerative changes reduce the elasticity of tendons. It is also important that the therapist advises on the correct way to stretch as many injuries are caused by over stretching of the tendons.

Treating torn tendons correctly is crucial to the healing process. A torn tendon can limit mobility and cause intense pain. Most injuries are a result of strenuous exercise.

A doctor normally subscribes anti-inflammatory tablets to ease the pain and swelling if a tendon is damaged. The massage therapist will advise to follow the RICE method which stands for Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation. It is recommended to put an ice pack to the injured tendon for 15 to 20 minutes, at least once every two hours. Using these four immediate first aid measures can relieve pain, limit swelling and protect the injured tendons, all of which help speed healing. Using ice as soon a possible can save weeks of rehabilitation. I want to do this! What’s This? The function of the tendon is to act as a stretch and recoil mechanism that transmits the force generated by a muscle to the bones or joints to which it is attached. (Very similar; to a rubber band or a lump of blue tack.) When I coach children I use this analogy to explain the importance of stretching tendons and muscles. When the rubber band and blue tack is warm it stretches easier but as soon as you release it the rubber band it snaps back to its original shape. When the muscle contracts, it puts force on the tendon in a similar manner. The tendon will stretch and then pull back to a shorter length or recoil. This recoil transmits the energy of the muscle contraction to the joint and results in movement.

Theory of contractions

The Nerves in our body are connected the spinal column to the muscles of our body. The neuromuscular junction is where the nerve and muscle meet. An electrical signal crosses the junction and is transmitted deep inside the muscle fibers.

Inside our muscle fibers, the signal stimulates the flow of calcium which causes the thick and thin myofilaments to slide across one another. When this occurs, it causes the sarcomere to shorten, which generates force. When billions of sarcomeres in the muscle shorten all at once it results in a contraction of the entire muscle fiber.

Types of contraction

Muscle is the only type of body tissue with the ability to contract. It becomes shorter and thicker during contraction. Some muscles work in pairs or as antagonists. This means when a muscle contracts the opposing muscle relaxes. Muscles, tendons, and ligaments support the spine, hold it upright and control movement during rest and activity.

isometric contraction, is a contraction in which no movement takes place, because the load on the muscle exceeds the tension generated by the contracting muscle. This occurs when a muscle attempts to push or pull an immovable object.

isotonic contraction is a contraction in which movement does take place, because the tension generated by the contracting muscle exceeds the load on the muscle. This occurs when you use your muscles to successfully push or pull an object.

Isotonic contractions are further divided into two types:

concentric contraction is a contraction in which the muscle decreases in length (shortens) against an opposing load, such as lifting a weight up.

eccentric contraction is a contraction in which the muscle increases in length (lengthens) as it resists a load, such as lowering a weight down in a slow, controlled fashion.


A tendon connects bone to muscle and a ligament connects bone to bone. The actual point of attachment where a muscle connects to a bone is called the process of the bone. This is a bulge in the bone where muscle can attach to provide movement.

Group action and paired action theory

To enable a limb to move we need a group action with our muscles,

These muscles cause the movement to occur. They create the normal range of movement in a joint by contracting. Agonists are also referred to as prime movers since they are the muscles that are primarily responsible for generating the movement.

These muscles act in opposition to the movement generated by the agonists and are responsible for returning a limb to its initial position.

These muscles perform, or assist in performing, the same set of joint motion as the agonists. Synergists are sometimes referred to as neutralizers because they help cancel out, or neutralize, extra motion from the agonists to make sure that the force generated works within the desired plane of motion.

These muscles provide the necessary support to assist in holding the rest of the body in place while the movement occurs. Fixators are also sometimes called stabilizers.

Characteristics of muscle tissue

Several layers of fibrous connective tissue called Fascia cover muscles. Fascia extends beyond the muscle to become the tendon that attaches the muscle to bone.

Endomysium, is the innermost fascial sheath that envelops individual muscle fibers.

Perimysium, is the fascial sheath that binds groups of muscle fibers into individual fasciculi.

Epimysium, is the outermost fascial sheath that binds entire fascicles .

Connective tissues help provide suppleness and tone to our muscles. Located all around the muscle and its fibers are connective tissues. Connective tissue is composed of a base substance and two kinds of protein based fiber. The two types of fiber are collagenous connective tissue and elastic connective tissue. Collagenous connective tissue consists mostly of collagen this provides a tensile strength. Elastic connective tissue consists mostly of elastin this provides elasticity. The more elastic connective tissue there is around a joint, the greater the range of motion in that joint. Connective tissues are made up of tendons, ligaments, and the fascial sheaths that envelop, or bind down, muscles into separate groups.

Exercise effects

The cardiac cycle

The heart rate for a human being at rest is about 70 beats per minute. During vigorous exercise, heart rate can increase dramatically. Exercise uses up a lot of energy, both glucose and oxygen have to be delivered by the blood. This means that the heart has to work harder to pump more blood through the body. The circulatory system responds to an increased need for blood by adjusting the width of the blood vessels, primarily the arterioles and venules. The blood leaves the heart through the aeortic valves it is channelled through the body by arteries, arterioles, and finally reaching the capillaries where it delivers oxygenated blood to the cells in the tissue. Waste and CO2 are carried back to the heart through venules veins, and the larger vena cava, finally reaching the atrium of the heart where it is pumped to the lungs

The pulmonary System

The movement of blood from the heart, to the lungs and back to the heart again is known as the pulmonary circuit. It is a bit like a figure of eight pumping system! Which is just one phase of the circulatory system? Veins bring blood to the heart, entering the right atrium. The right atrium fills with blood and then contracts, pushing the blood through a one-way valve into the right ventricle. The right ventricle fills and then contracts, pushing the blood into the pulmonary artery which leads to the lungs. The heart has valves which are important for preventing any backward flow of blood. The circulatory system is like a network of one-way streets. If blood started flowing the wrong way, the blood gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) might mix, causing a serious threat to your body. In the lungs, capillaries on the outside of the alveoli exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen. Fresh, oxygen-rich blood enters the pulmonary veins and then returns to the heart, re-entering through the left atrium.

The nervous and chemical control of blood vessels

An area in the medulla oblongata of the brain that contains neurones concerned with the regulation of the diameter of blood vessels and heart rate so that blood pressure can be controlled. Adrenaline is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland in the body . When it is produced in the body it stimulates the heart-rate, dilates blood vessels and air passages. Adrenaline is produced in high-stress, fear, excitement and exercise situations. These cause the heart rate to speed up and coronary vessels to dilate increasing blood supply to the heart, muscles and vital organs.

Blood Shunting

Vessels called shunt vessels provide this short cut and allow blood from the artery to enter the vein, so by passing the capillaries. There are certain points along some of the blood vessels where small arteries have direct connection with veins Blood shunting mainly occurs in the body after a heavy meal or after exercise, blood is directed to the intestines to help with digestion.


As stated above fixators are muscles that provide the necessary support to assist in holding the rest of the body in place while the movement occurs. Fixators are also sometimes called stabilizers. Global stabilisers are the outer core muscles, they are the only joint stabilisers who’s main role is to control direct specific stress and strain.

Core Muscles

Our static posture relies on the length, strength and tension of our stabilising muscles. To enable us to stand upright we use our stabilisers and to be able move on our two feet we need mobilisers. Strong core muscles, help distribute the stress of weight bearing and protects the spine. The neutral spine is the correct position of the pelvis in order to gain the maximum benefit from exercise.

The “Core” relates to the bodily region bounded by the abdominal wall, the pelvis, the lower back and the diaphragm and its ability to stabilise the body during movement.

Some of the muscles involved are:

Lumbar multifidus – joins from vertebrae to back of pelvis

Psoas major– from vertebrae round to front of hip into femur- flex thigh at hip joint, flex trunk on the hip

Iliacus – from iliac crest down front of hip into femur

Skeletal system:

Gender variations

The average male skeleton is larger than the female skeleton. But we have to consider that there are short men and tall women! So this is not a reliable method of telling them apart. Another difference between male and female skeletons is that female bones are usually lighter and thinner than more robust then male bones. The female head bones are smaller and more lightly built and the female pelvis is shallower and wider than the male’s. (this makes child birth easier) The pelvis is considered the best area to determine the sex of a skeleton and the skull is the second best area.

Structure and function of the vertebral column

There are more than 30 Muscles and tendons help to provide spinal balance, stability, and mobility. Usually working in groups, muscles contract and relax in response to nerve impulses that originate in the brain. Nerve impulses travel from the brain through the spinal cord to a specific location in the body via the peripheral nervous system.


Structure of intervertabral discs,


The movements between the individual bones of the spine are very limited, but the movement of the spinal column as a whole is quite extensive. It forms the axis of the trunk, giving attachment to the ribs, shoulder girdle and upper limbs, and the pelvic girdle and lower limbs. Movements include flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotation. There is more movement in the cervical and lumbar regions than elsewhere.

In between the vertebrae of the spine are discs made of fibrous cartilage known as intervertebral discs There is one disc between each pair of vertebrae, (except for the first cervical segment) They act as shock absorbers which protect the brain and allows the back to move. There are a total of twenty-three discs in the spine, each disc forms a cartilaginous joint which allows slight movement of the vertebrae, and acts as a ligament to hold the vertebrae together.


structure of ligaments,


A joint consists of bones, muscles, ligaments, cartilage and a lubricating fluid all enclosed by a tough joint capsule. Bones are anchored by ligaments that permit a certain amount of movement in specific directions. Many joints are surrounded by a joint capsule, which contains the joint lubricant, synovial fluid. The ends of the bones are covered by cartilage, creating a smooth surface that helps the joint move easily and helps to absorb any concussion as body weight is placed on the joint.

Ligaments are composed largely of long parallel or spiral collagenous fibers, but they also possess yellow elastic fibers. Ligaments may be intracapsular or extracapsular, depending on whether they are inside or outside the joint capsule, or part of the capsule itself.

Ligaments bind the bone ends together to prevent dislocation and excessive movement that might cause breakage. Ligaments also support many internal organs, including the uterus, the bladder, the liver, and the diaphragm.

Joint ranges of movement,


intra-capsular structures, and extra structures,


Nerve and blood supply of joints

When we use massage methods it stimulates the central nervous system to sooth and calm the clients nerves. By doing so, it reduces stress and tension in both a physical and psychological sense. Our body’s nervous system is responsible for sending, receiving and carrying nerve impulses around our body. It is the main control unit in your body and these nerve impulses allow your organs and muscles to work efficiently.

Cardiovascular system:

Supply to muscles

When we exercise, the blood vessels in our muscles dilate and the blood flow is greater. As ATP gets used up in working muscle, the muscle produces adenosine, hydrogen ions and carbon dioxide, which are by products. These by products leave the muscle cells and cause the capillaries which are small, thin-walled blood vessels within the muscle to expand or dilate this is called vasodilation. The increased blood flow the delivers more oxygenated blood to the working muscle.

Exercise effects
When, we exercise, blood that would have gone to the stomach or the kidneys goes instead to the muscles, As our muscles begin to work, the sympathetic nervous system, a part of the automatic or autonomic nervous system stimulates the nerves to the heart and blood vessels. This nervous stimulation causes the arteries and veins to contract or constrict, which is called vasoconstriction. This vasoconstriction reduces blood flow to tissues. Our muscles also get the command for vasoconstriction, but the metabolic by products produced within the muscle override this command and cause vasodilation, Because the rest of the body gets the message to constrict the blood vessels and the muscles dilate their blood vessels, blood flow from nonessential organs for example; stomach, intestines and kidney is diverted to the working muscle. This helps increase the delivery of oxygenated blood to working the muscle.


Massage can help with the blood flow of our cardiovascular system. There are many ways that the system can get conjested in the capilaries and arteries. Some examples to conjestion in the cardiovascular system are : Shock , Hyperemia, Hemorrhage, Ischemia, Thrombosis, Embolism. Edema.

When an athlete is injured they sometimes go into shock this is Peripheral circulatory failure with pooling of the blood in the small capillaries.

Hyperemia is when to much arterial blood is brought to an organ or tissue by dilated arterioles and capillaries

Ischemia is the local anemia or a deficiency of arterial blood to a portion of an organ or part. The chief causes of ischemia are: External pressure upon an artery,, Narrowing of the lumen of an artery, A thrombus or embolus.

Thrombosis is the formation of a clot from elements of the circulating blood within the vascular system

An embolism is a foreign body moving through the circulatory system and becoming lodged in a vessel causing obstruction

Nervous system:

Spinal cord structure

The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord. The spinal cord is suspended in the vertebrae canal surrounded by meninges (membrane) and cerebrospinal fluid.

Nerves conveying impulses from the brain to the various organs and tissues descend through the spinal cord. A cross section of the spinal cord shows that it is composed of grey matter in the centre surrounded by white matter supported by neuroglia*

Cerebrospinal fluid is a fluid that circulates throughout the central nervous system which includes the spinal cord. It delivers nutrients to the structures of the nervous system. It also removes waste from the brain and spinal cord detoxifying the environment of the nervous system. It also acts as a shock absorber, which protects the brain and spinal cord from any trauma which may occur. It also helps transport hormones to other areas of the brain.

The blood barrier is created by the tight apposition of endothelial cells lining blood vessels in the brain preventing easy passage of large molecules and pathogens between the circulation and the brain, but still allows the flow of oxygen and glucose.

* The nervous system consists of a vast number of cells called neurons supported by a connective tissue called Neuroglia

Cervical Plexus, Brachial plexus, Lumbar plexus, Sacral plexus


Major nerves arising from the spinal cord

The major nerves arising from the spinal cord are:

8 cervical, 12 thoratic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 cocygeal.

Remember sequence: 8 12 5 5 1

In the spine, ligaments help to provide structural stability.

  • There are two primary ligament systems in the spine, the intrasegmental and intersegmental systems.
  • The intrasegmental system holds individual vertebrae together.
  • The intrasegmental system includes the ligamentum flavum , interspinous , and intertransverse ligaments.
  • The intersegmental system holds many vertebrae together.
  • The intersegmental system includes the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments, and the supraspinous ligaments.

The spinal column’s Blood Supply is a system of arteries and veins. The circulation nourishes the cells in the vertebrae, spinal cord, nerves, muscles, and other structures.

Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerve root fibers pass through the vertebral foramen Similar to tree branches, nerve roots outside the spinal canal branch out to form thousands of nerve pathways throughout the body. The nerves beyond the spinal nerve roots make up the Peripheral Nervous System. Dermatomes are part of the Peripheral Nervous System. These are nerve roots that are in the skin.

There are more than 30 Muscles and tendons help to provide spinal balance, stability, and mobility. Usually working in groups, muscles contract and relax in response to nerve impulses that originate in the brain. Nerve impulses travel from the brain through the spinal cord to a specific location in the body via the peripheral nervous system.

Cranial and spinal nerves/plexuses,



Major nerve pathways

The spinal column is divided into cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions,

The cervical part of the spinal cord is divided into eight parts each part controls to different functions in the neck and the arms sensations from the body are similarly transported from the skin and other areas of the body from the neck, shoulders, and arms up to the brain.

The thoracic part of the spinal cord supply muscles of the chest, that help in breathing and coughing. This region also contains nerves in the sympathetic nervous system.

The lumbosacral of the spinal cord supply legs, pelvis, and bowel and bladder.

Sensations from the feet, legs, pelvis, and lower abdomen are transmitted through the lumbosacral nerves and spinal cord to higher segments and eventually the brain

There are many nerve pathways that transmit signals up and down the spinal cord.




Nerve supply to joints

The skin is the body’s largest sensory organ of the body, and when it is touched thousands of tiny nerve receptors send messages to the brain. These are interpreted and returned to the muscles. When the muscles are massaged the body’s natural painkillers, endorphins, are triggered which send messages that help us relax. When we massage the skin’s underlying muscles are stimulated, easing tension and stiffness. The nervous system sends receives and carrys nerve impulses around our body. It is the main control unit in your body and these nerve impulses allow your organs and muscles and joints to work efficiently. Nerve impulses are electrochemical signals carrying information, which travel from your brain to our joints all over our body.


Proprioception refers to the body’s ability to sense movement within joints and joint position. This ability enables us to know where our limbs are in space without having to look. It is important in all everyday movements but especially so in complicated sporting movements, where precise coordination is essential. This coordinated movement is a result of the normal functioning of the proprioceptive system.

The system is made up of receptor nerves that are positioned in our muscles, joints and the ligaments around our joints. The receptors can sense tension and stretch and pass this information to the brain where it is processed. The brain then responds by signalling to our muscles to contract or relax in order to produce the desired movement.

This system is subconscious, and we don’t have to think about the movements or the corrections to movement. Sometimes the reactions take place so fast they are termed reflexive.


Lymphatic system:

Major lymph nodes

Lymph is the name given to interstitial fluid which enters the lymphatic vessels.

It has has a composition comparable to that of blood plasma but it may differ slightly depending on the tissue served (drained).

The lymphatic system aids the circulatory system by helping to eliminate waste products from cells, absorbing fat from the intestines and makes up the immune system. This system has no pump, it works with the aid of muscle contraction, venous return and gravity.








The Lymphatic system is a ‘one way system’ the starting point are the capillaries which are situated in the tissues of the body. The purpose of capillaries are to drain excess fluid that has not been reabsorbed into the bloodstream, and move it into lymph veins. The veins (which contain non return valves) move the lymph fluid to lymph ducts (via the lymph nodes) for transport to the subclavian veins where the fluid is returned to the blood stream.

The lymph node is a kind filter, the bean shaped structure’s cortex contains many lymphocytes that are activated if needed to fight foreign substances.


The Spleen is an organ that is part of the immune system. The spleen is a storage site for lymphocytes (white blood cells important in immunity and defense against infection), it filters the blood, stores blood cells, and destroys old blood cells.


The tonsils and adenoids are also a part of the immune system they are made of lymph tissue and are situated in the throat. They help make various substances collectively known as antibodies which help our bodies to fight against infection and diseases.


The immune system is a collection of biological processes within organisms in our body that protect us against diseases, it does this by identifying and killing pathogens

The body has several defense mechanisms to provide this function, these are:

Mechanical barriers– skin, mucus membranes if unbroken

Chemicals– interferons, complements and histamine

Inflammation– a sequence of events involving, chemical and cellular activation that destroys pathogens and aids the repair tissues

Phagocytosis– the process of white blood cells engulfing pathogens and cell debris

Fever– increased body temperature above 37.28C to inhibit some viruses and bacteria and speeds up metabolism and increases defense activity

Interferon– these are proteins produced by cells infected by viruses. Interferon forms the antiviral proteins and help protect uninfected cells and inhibit viral growth. There are 3 types:

Alpha- from white blood cells

Beta- from fibroblasts

Gamma- from lymphocytes


Complements– are proteins found in blood that combine to create substances that phgocytise (ingest) bacteria


Histamine– released by cells including mast cells, basophils and platelets. It causes vasodilatation to bring more blood to the area of injury or infection. Its also increases vascular permeability to allow fluid to enter the damaged area and dilute to toxins

The Immune Response

There are 2 types of immune response produced by different types of Lymphocytes:

Humoral immunity– this involves the B- lymphocytes which produce free antibodies that circulate the bloodstream

Cell-mediated immunity– this is effected by the helper T-cells, suppressor T-cells and natural killer cells that recognise and respond to certain antigens to protect the body against their effects

Lymphatic drainage, is a technique used by therapists which promotes rapid removal of toxins and waste products such as lactic acid from the muscle.

The increased blood flow caused by massage helps increase the nourishment muscles receive and carries the wastes from the muscles into the lymphatic system. By encouraging the flow of lymph this also helps pump toxins out of your body enhancing your immune system as it increases white blood cells. Oedema is excess fluid in the tissue; massage can reduce this by Lymphatic drainage.


Respiratory system

Respiration starts at the nose and the mouth, Air flows down the trachea (windpipe) which extends from the neck into the thorax. It then divides into the right and left bronchi, which enter the right and left lungs. They then divide into smaller bronchi and bronchioles and end up into the tiny alveoli, which are tiny air sacks. This is where *gaseous exchange occurs. The lungs are divided into right and left. The left is slightly smaller, there is a notch in the left lung to accommodate the heart. The heart pumps blood to the lungs, the oxygen in the lungs is diffused into the capillaries that surround the alveoli, the oxygen attaches to haemoglobin within the blood and is transported around the body to the cells. Cells produce carbon dioxide these are discharged by a reverse procedure whereby the blood continually being pumped by the heart returns to the lungs, it is expelled the same way as it entered the body, through the alveoli situated in the lungs. This will be described in more detail as we continue.

Bronchial tubes are lined with mucus and cilia, which act as a filter system. The mucus catches and holds dust, germs, and other unwanted things that have entered the lungs. Amongst the mucus are cilia, which are very small hairs. They have a Mexican wave-like motion, this motion carries the mucus upward and out into the throat. The mucus and the foreign bodies are either coughed up or swallowed.


*Gaseous exchange is the primary function of the respiratory system to obtain oxygen for use by body’s cells & eliminate the carbon dioxide that the cells produce. This happens with the process of diffusion.

The organs of the respiratory system are:

  • · Nose,
  • · Pharynx,
  • · Larynx,
  • · Trachea,
  • · Two Bronchi (one bronchus to each lung)
  • · Bronchioles and smaller passages,
  • · two lungs and their coverings, the pleura.
  • · Muscles of breathing- the intercostal muscles and the diaphragm.

Nose: nasal septum forms the nostrils


Nasopharynx, forms the back of the nose, above the soft palate

Oropharynx, the squeezing action of these muscles, help shape sound into speech

Larynopharynx, involved in swallowing

Larynx: the voice box

Trachea / windpipe, carries air into the lungs, made or rings of hyaline cartilage (looks like a vacuum cleaner tube) like the nose lined with a mucus membrane that contains cells with cilia which waft invading germs and dust up into the throat to be swallowed.

Bronchi: two primary bronchi are formed when the trachea divides. The bronchi are composed of the same tissues as the trachea, ciliated columnar epithielium.

The bronchi progressively subdivide into bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles made from a smooth layer of ciliated epithelium

Lobule: contains the aveola ducts and the individual alveoli made from a single layer of simple squamous epithelial tissue.

Lungs: right lung has 3 lobes – upper middle and lower left lung has 2 lobes (gives space to heart)

There is a good working relationship between the heart and the lungs. The movement of blood from the heart, to the lungs and back to the heart again is known as the pulmonary circuit. It is a bit like a figure of eight pumping system! Which is just one phase of the circulatory system? Veins bring blood to the heart, entering the right atrium. The right atrium fills with blood and then contracts, pushing the blood through a one-way valve into the right ventricle. The right ventricle fills and then contracts, pushing the blood into the pulmonary artery which leads to the lungs. The heart has valves which are important for preventing any backward flow of blood. The circulatory system is like a network of one-way streets. If blood started flowing the wrong way, the blood gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) might mix, causing a serious threat to your body. In the lungs, capillaries on the outside of the alveoli exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen. Fresh, oxygen-rich blood enters the pulmonary veins and then returns to the heart, re-entering through the left atrium.

Breathing requires the contraction of skeletal muscles, the muscles involved in respiration are the diaphragm and the internal and external intercostals muscles. The intercostals plus the diaphragm contract to bring about inspiration.

To inhale; we need the contraction of external inter costal muscles and the contraction of the diaphragm, The diaphragm moves downward which lowers air pressure in lungs and the air moves into lungs. To exhale; we need the relaxation of the inter costal muscles and the diaphragm moves up wards which increases pressure in lungs and air is exhaled.




Image above Ref: www.empty

mechanism of correct breathing;

The whole of our body’s structure is made up of cells, in order for our cells to function they need a constant supply of oxygen and a means to eliminate carbon dioxide. The lungs play a major part of this process, if they do not function correctly our systems of the body would be out of ‘sync’ and the ‘whole’ body would not be able function correctly.





Secondary muscles of respiration;

Muscles of respiration



(primary muscles)

external intercostals

elastic recoil of lung tissue
surface tension
gravity on ribs
internal intercostals

(secondary or accessory muscles)


pectoralis major
pectoralis minor

serratus anterior
serratus posterior superior

upper iliocostalis


external oblique
internal oblique
rectus abdominus

lower iliocostalis
lower longissimus
serratus posterior inferior

Accessory breathing,

When we exercise our breathing pattern increases and our breathing requires extra effort, we then need our accessory muscles to come into play, they are: the sternocleidomastoid, scalene, pectoralis major, trapezius, internal intercostal, and abdominal muscles stabilize the thorax during respiration. Some accessory muscle use also takes place during such activities as singing, talking, coughing, defecating.

Breathing pattern disorders


Massage can help with Asthma it is a condition that affects the airways. Asthma is an allergy it occurs when a person comes into contact with something that irritates their airways. The muscles around the walls of the airways tighten so that the airways become narrower and the lining of the airways becomes inflamed and starts to swell. In some cases sticky mucus or phlegm builds up which can further narrow the airways.


Massage can help with Bronchitis it is an acute inflammation of the air passages within the lungs. It occurs when the windpipe and the large and small bronchi within the lungs become inflamed because of infection or other causes.

A bronchiolspasm is a spasmodic contraction of the bronchial muscles, which actually constricts the airway. It is an involuntary response.

Energy systems:

Systems employed; in relation to clients sporting needs


When we use the form of Aerobic exercise it is physical exercise that helps to improve the oxygen system. Aerobic means “with oxygen“, and refers to the use of oxygen in the body’s metabolic or energy-generating process. Many types of exercise are aerobic, and by definition are performed at moderate levels of intensity for extended periods of time.Anaerobic


exercise is exercise intense enough to trigger anaerobic metabolism. It is used by athletes in non-endurance sports to promote strength, speed and power and by body builders to build muscle mass. Muscles trained using the anaerobic method, develop differently compared to aerobic exercise, leading to greater performance in short duration, high intensity activities, which last from mere seconds up to about 2 minutes.



Differences between men and women:

genetics, anatomical differences, body systems, performance differences

Its a debatable point to some people especially ladies! but the difference in size between male and female affects the absolute amount of physical work that can be performed by men and women.

Men have 50 percent greater total muscle mass, based on weight, than do women. A woman who is the same size as her male counterpart is generally only 80 percent as strong. Therefore, men usually have an advantage in strength, speed, and power over women.

Women carry about 10 percent more body fat than do men of the same age. Men accumulate fat primarily in the back, chest, and abdomen; women gain fat in the buttocks, arms, and thighs. Also, because the center of gravity is lower in women than in men, women must overcome more resistance in activities that require movement of the lower body.

Women have less bone mass than men, but their pelvic structure is wider. This difference gives men
an advantage in running efficiency.

The average womans heart is 25 percent smaller than the average man, which means the heart can pump more blood with each beat. The larger heart size contributes to the slower resting heart rate. Women have a faster heart rate which means that most women will become fatigued
sooner than men. Women are also generally are more flexible than men.
The lung capacity of men is greater than that of women. This gives men an advantage in the processing of oxygen and in doing aerobic work such as running.
Women sweat less, lose less heat through evaporation, and reach higher body temperatures before sweating starts although women can adapt to heat stress as well as men.

Obviously another difference is that some women have larger breasts than others, they can still exercise! As a running coach I sometimes have to recommend a properly fitted sports bra to be worn
to avoid potential injury to the breast tissue that may result from prolonged jarring during running. Also women have to put up with menstruation but women can exercise during this period.

Contact Steve: Treatment Room: 01736 – 752217 Mobile: 077 37 57 27 37








Steve West Assignments (levei 3) Ross & Wilson Anatomy and Physiology In Health and Illness,,, By Eric Dontigney, eHow


Contact Steve: Treatment Room: 01736 – 752217 Mobile: 077 37 57 27 37